|LCD Modules from GE-Vision
Do you need 10,000 or more LCD modules? No problem. But - what about smaller
quantities? And - maybe you need some customization? Now it is looking really
gloomy. There are very few large manufacturers that address the needs of small
to medium-sized customers and when they do, it is normally expensive. To put an
end to this dilemma and in future be able to offer reasonably priced LCD modules
with customer specific modifications starting with batches of 500 pieces,
Gleichmann Electronics has brought into being its own brand - GE-Vision. The
product offering of GEVision’s character modules ranges from 1 x 8 characters to
4 x 40 characters, whereby, for many of these modules, controllers with
different character fonts are available. Graphic modules with a resolution of 80
x 32 to 320 x 240 pixels are provided.
Almost all module types are offered in all popular LCD technologies such as
STN yellow-green and grey modes, STN blue mode as well as FSTN positive and
negative. A white LED backlight is available for practically all modules as
standard. Furthermore, many modules are already available with RGB backlight.
This innovative technology enables the drive of a monochrome display with
numerous background colors using an appropriate PWM control in order, for
example, to visualize certain operating conditions of a machine control or to
perform design oriented requirements. Moreover, almost all of GE-Vision’s
standard modules offer the necessary mounting options in order to implement an
on-board DC/DC converter for generation of the LCD voltage. Likewise, optional
on-board temperature compensation is provided.
Customer specific services include, among other things, printed circuit board
layout changes, mounting of pin rows according to customer specification as well
as various cable solutions or also printed circuit board changes relating to
size and form factor with additional mounting options. Even full custom
solutions or also one-to-one copies of obsolete modules of other manufacturers
can be provided at attractive prices. This is where the technical competence of
our production partner takes effect. Our partner combines, under one roof,
practically all production processes right up to the manufacturing of the
The operating temperature range of the modules is specified with -20°C to +
70°C. Therefore, the respective components are ideally suited for the high
requirements of European industrial customers. Many demonstration systems are
already available from stock. A comprehensive product catalog will be available
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Massive Price Increase for Lead Acid
Not only the “Directive on the Restriction of the Use of Certain Hazardous
Substances in Electrical and Electronic Equipment” (RoHS) is currently a cause
of concern for users of lead acid batteries, but also the prices, which have
increased significantly in recent months.
For example, the price for 12V / 7Ah lead acid batteries increased by
approximately 50 percent from January to September 2007. This development makes
it increasingly difficult for equipment manufacturers to make long term,
reliable calculations. In the meantime a way out of this misery is, in many
cases, offered with lithiumion batteries.
It is well known that lead acid batteries are used in applications where
weight is not so important, but on the other hand, as far as possible, safe and
maintenancefree components over a long period of time are necessary.
Whereas the prices for LiFeP04 batteries continually decrease, costs for
lead acid batteries are steadily increasing.
The relatively simple charging technology has, up to now, also supported the
decision for heavy, but robust lead acid batteries. And last but not least the
excellent price-performance ratio. Indeed, in the past the price difference
between lead acid and lithium-ion batteries was immense. But, in the meantime
this has been put into perspective by a price development move in the opposite
direction and the significant advantages of lithium-ion technology such as:
smaller size, lighter weight and greater energy density. Additionally,
lithium-ion batteries are considered to be the most environmentally-friendly
energy alternative. More on the topic of lithium-ion batteries compared to lead
acid batteries can be found starting on chapter
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Touch it! - GUIs for Next Generation Designs
ZigBee™ has established itself as an open communication standard with the aim to
enable cost-effective and energy-saving networks. With the support of various
topologies, particularly mesh networking, a high reliability and availability
are guaranteed. Target markets include Home Automation, Building Automation and
An increasing number of today’s new equipment designs use graphical user
interfaces (GUIs). They provide enhanced functionality as well as allowing
intuitive and simple operation. NEC Electronics’ new Touch it! Development Kit –
now available from Gleichmann Electronics – is designed to make touch-controlled
TFT project development as easy as possible.
Mechanical devices such as keyboards, switches and knobs as well as display
devices such as dials and counters are useful - they are everywhere, but they
are so limiting. And what about reliability, ease of use and usability,
performance, aesthetics and differentiation? It is no surprise that GUIs based
on touch-controlled TFT-LCDs are seen as the ideal solution. They offer many new
design possibilities for next generation designs of all kinds of applications
such as: electric cookers, security systems, industrial drives, medical patient
monitors, photocopiers and self checkout machines in supermarkets, where the
customer is permitted to scan and pay for their own goods.
A graphical user interface supports interaction between a
human and an electronic device. For this purpose GUIs use graphics, controls,
widgets (graphical elements such as windows, buttons, menus and scroll bars) as
well as text to represent information and actions available to the user. If a
system is equipped with the addition of a touch screen then all of these
elements are brought together, with the display serving as a combined input and
Birth of the GUI
The history of the GUI can be traced back to the mid- 1960s.
At that time Douglas Engelbart, a pioneer of graphical user interfaces at
Stanford Research Institute, embarked upon the task of developing computerbased
technologies for manipulating information directly. Engelbart reasoned that the
state of our current technology controls our ability to manipulate information,
and that fact in turn will control our ability to develop new, improved
technologies. This was based on his slightly easier to explain theory that the
sophistication of a language dictates and limits the sophistication of the
thoughts of a speaker of that language.
Engelbart developed the precursor to today’s GUI, using
text-based hyperlinks, controlled by another of the inventions he worked on,
which was essentially a wooden box with wheels inside it (now known as a
computer mouse). In the following decades, Xerox PARC took this a stage further
for their Xerox Alto computer. Hyperlinks were replaced with graphics and the
originator of graphical user interfaces, as we know them today, was born.
Enhanced functionality, thanks to GUI
We all know what GUIs are, how they work and what they can do
for us. There is no big scary learning curve involved therefore; mass market
acceptance is there from the outset. The technology, the know-how and the
support you need to implement your solutions are already available and
therefore, no fundamental new developments are necessary. GUI technology can be
integrated into new design projects not just to replace your existing user
interface, but provide lots of additional features. So the question is - where
do you start?
|Touch it! Development Kit
Compliance with ISO9241 – we will come back to that later –
must be achieved by the designer. NEC Electronics’ new Touch it! is a
development kit designed to make your touch-controlled TFT project development
as easy as possible. The box includes everything required to get going
immediately, such as 32-bit V850 All Flash microcontroller with large embedded
Flash memory, TFT-LCD controller / driver, the 3.5” color TFT itself, including
built-in touchscreen, plus RTOS, graphics libraries and software examples. To
enable future expansion and upgrades, the kit has also been designed in a
modular way so that additional boards may be connected for extra functionality.
At the heart of the system is an NEC Electronics V850ES/JG2 All Flash 32-bit
microcontroller, offering 20MHz performance, 640K Flash, 48K RAM and an
abundance of general purpose peripherals. Memory sizes from 64K Flash with 6K
RAM up to a huge 1M Flash with 60K of RAM are available in the V850 All Flash
family, so the actual device used in the final design can easily be tailored
exactly to the end application’s functionality and graphics output requirements.
In case you have not used V850 before do not worry, according to Gartner
Dataquest it is now the number one selling 32-bit microcontroller in the world.
An external bus interface is also provided, enabling additional external memory
or graphic controller ICs to be connected.
The kit is supplied with NEC Electronics’ new NL2432HC22-41K 3.5”
transflective Quarter VGA color LCD-TFT module, which includes driver LSIs for
the TFT array, touch screen and backlight and is qualified to industrial
specifications. As well as offering low power, high luminance, and high
contrast, the display is based on NEC Electronics’ Super- Reflective Natural
Light TFT Technology for optimum performance in any light environment.
Connectors are also provided on the board making it easy to switch to larger
displays if desired.
The system software is based on NEC Electronics’ partner Segger’s embOS Real
Time Operating System, offering a fully featured multitasking system for
graphics, touch screen / user input and any communications to other boards, and
the Segger emWIN graphics library to handle character and graphic display
routines, fast drawing of circles and polygons, string / value output routines,
management of multiple windows, optional widgets for a PC-style look and feel,
and touch screen support. Demonstration versions are supplied, as well as an
appetizer version of the IAR Workbench ‘C’ compiler suite, and application as
well as function-based program examples.
ISO9241 - ergonomic factors, performance and users’
So that just leaves us with ISO9241, which is a standard
defining the various components of quality for a humanmachine interface (HMI)
system. ISO9241 is about effectiveness and whether or not the user interface
does what the user wants it to do. It is also about efficiency and how easy the
interface is to learn and use. Finally it is about satisfaction, based on the
user’s opinions having used the system.
And what has this got to do with your new design? Well, for
new projects the designer needs to know how to measure these ISO components on
the new touch screen controlled TFT user interface. Touch it! provides all
necessary components for your next touch-controlled TFT development project.
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Gleichmann Electronics Research‘ SEmulatorTM:
Turbocharging the FPGA/ASIC Development Process
Today’s complex, multimillion gate SoC designs consume a lot of development
time and hence money with every simulation, synthesis or place & route run.
At the same time, the pressure to be profi table and early to the market,
shortens design cycles and leaves almost no margin for errors.
With the SEmulator®, Gleichmann Electronics Research introduces a new method
of FPGA / ASIC design, promising shorter development times, higher design
security and therefore lower design costs.
SEmulator® is a synthetic word that combines the words Simulator and
Emulator. It describes the basic functionality of the SEmulator® very well. The
SEmulator ® provides bridging functionality between the domain of digital
hardware simulation and the world of FPGA prototyping. Design blocks can easily
be moved between these two domains.
SEmulation, simulator controlled emulation, combines digital hardware
simulation with emulation in a rapid prototyping system. It allows the
step-by-step transfer of functional blocks from the simulator (software) into
the FPGA (hardware) without leaving the simulation environment and without the
need to recompile the complete design for every minor modifi cation, thus
shortening the development time.
As opposed to high end hardware accelerators, the SEmulator® requires just
little more than a standard FPGA development board (Hpe®_midi): the only
additional hardware is a child board for a fast PCI Express link to the Host PC
(see “Commercial position of SEmulation”).
Co-simulation with real hardware
The SEmulator system allows co-simulation of real hardware
blocks (e.g., Ethernet, display controllers) with an existing HDL simulation.
This approach allows integrating real hardware early in the design cycle
cosimulating hardware blocks, where no simulation model is available. For
instance, a newly developed peripheral block could be co-simulated with an
existing CPU (without a simulation model) that could be located on a child
board. You can use child boards to implement interfaces between the Hpe® and
other systems. In the context of a complete system you will simply develop
better RTL code.
A nice side effect of moving more and more design blocks into
FPGAs is reduced hours of simulation time to seconds of SEmulation time.(see
|Hpe®_midi – The SEmulator® hardware engine
Hpe®_midi is a powerful and versatile development and rapid
prototyping system for custom integrated circuits, notably FPGA and ASIC.
Hpe® is short for Hardware Prototyping and Evaluation Board,
yet its functionality takes the Hpe® family of FPGA and ASIC development systems
far beyond that claim. The Hpe® systems consist of a baseboard with numerous
on-board interfaces that can be equipped with one or more FPGA modules. A
variety of FPGA modules allow confi guring the Hpe® to target applications
ranging anywhere from 600,000 to 55 million ASIC gate equivalents. Both
baseboard as well as FPGA modules can be populated with application specifi c
child boards. More than 1000 user I/Os and numerous on-board interfaces allow
customization as well as interfacing with other systems.
The Hpe®_midi may be used as hardware engine for the
revolutionary SEmulator® development tool, drastically reducing design cycles by
seamless transition from software simulation to hardware emulation. Virtually
any hardware might be included in your digital simulation, even if a simulation
model is not available (hardware-in-the-loop).
Hpe®_midi caters for all foreseeable target system
development requirements: equipped with copious amounts of Flash, SRAM and
EEPROM memory, a comprehensive range of communication and graphic interfaces, a
comfortable human interface and removable Hpe®_modules integrating one or more
FPGAs as well as various Hpe®_child boards allowing easy customization and
interfacing with other systems.
About Gleichmann Electronics Research
Gleichmann Electronics Research (GE-Research), part of the
German-based MSC/Gleichmann group with more than 1,600 employees, was founded in
October 2004 in Hagenberg, Austria with the goal to turn research prototypes
into products. In close cooperation with the University of Hagenberg and other
universities, GEResearch develops FPGA and ASIC design tools as well as
System-on-Chip (SoC) solutions. The first Hardware Accelerator and Co-Simulator
prototype was developed by Dr. Markus Pfaff back in 1999. Since then it was a
long and stony way to shipping the first Hardware Accelerator and Co-Simulator
HAC1 in 2005 and soon after the HAC2 in 2006.
At the same time GE Research successfully established its Hardware Prototyping
and Evaluation system Hpe®_ compact on the market. The SEmulator® combines these
two product lines and turns them into one. As opposed to expensive high end
hardware accelerators, the SEmulator® is based on the configurable and
customizable Hpe®_midi FPGA/ASIC prototyping system extended with a fast PCI
Express link to the Host PC. Together with the Gleichmann Electronics design
centre in Eching near Munich, Germany we employ more than 10 engineers with many
years experience in the field of FPGA and ASIC design. By the end of 2007
GE-Research will relocate to new facilities allowing aggressive growth for the
years to come.
GE-Research has formed many partnerships with companies to
complement its know-how for complex and future-oriented solutions, e.g. Altera
for automotive and other FPGA/ASIC applications, Mentor Graphics in the field of
digital simulation and Videantis® for comprehensive video solutions, to name
just a few of them.
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IO-Link Provides Efficient Point-To-Point Communication
The number of leading manufacturers from the field of automation technology
represented in the IO-Link consortium is growing continuously and IO-Link
devices are now gaining increas- ing acceptance in the market place. This
pleasing development is not least due to highly flexible hardware components
such as NEC Electronics’ V850 microcontroller (MCU) family. Because these MCUs
are available in a wide range of versions, they can be easily and cost
effectively adapted to the requirements of different field busses.
It is a fact that, within a short period of time, IOLink has established
itself as a new manufacturerindependent communication standard for
point-to-point communication between I/O devices and the sensor / actuator
level. But, what makes IO-Link in practice so interesting for the user? Well,
with IO-Link in addition to the process data also parameter setting and
diagnosis data can be transferred via a simple, unshielded standard 3-conductor
cable. Therefore, shielded cable, multiple pin connectors, additional inputs for
diagnosis, etc. are not required. Moreover, the integration of the IO Link
devices is achieved in a form familiar to the SPSprogrammer, namely via the
process illustration and function devices. Overriding systems can communicate
direct with IO-Link, if the SPS is capable of data set routing. The parameter
setting of the IO-Link units typically takes place direct from the engineering
station and what is more, unit information and diagnosis messages, e.g. for
remote maintenance or visualization, can be retrieved.
The IO-Link master acts as gateway, which provides the functionality of the
IO-Link devices to the SPS via the field bus. The latter enables a seamless
integration of the individual sensors and actuators. It is our experience that
for units such as the IO-Link master it is useful to provide graphical user
interfaces via STEP7. The integrations standard, Tool Calling Interface (TCI)
offers an interesting approach to a solution, because with it simple IO-Link XML
unit descriptions right up to EDD or FDT/DTMs can be integrated.
All of the named features are combined in the IO-Link Master from Balluff,
one of the world’s leading sensor manufacturers. Depending on the version, the
IO-Link Master is designed for communication via PROFINET or PROFIBUS. NEC
Electronics’ 32-bit V850 microcontroller serves as basis for the IO-Link
communication. The decision in favor of this microcontroller was based not least
on its versatile serial interface and I/Os. Among other things, the address data
bus of the V850 simplifies the connection of bus specific communication devices
such as the ERTEC200. Furthermore, the far-reaching compatibility of the
different V850 microcontrollers enables a simple porting of the software within
the V850 family. For example, the program of a device with a small memory and 64
I/O pins can be transferred, almost without changes, to a device with 144 pins
and a larger memory. By subsequent upgrades or downgrades, this results not only
in cost savings by the software development but also, as a rule, an optimization
of the component costs.
An increasing number of semiconductor manufacturers are designing
microcontroller and ASIC solutions dedicated for IO-Link. This underlines the
enormous growth potential for IO-Link based equipment in the coming years.
Please contact us and we will be happy to provide you with more detailed
information on this interesting topic.
(pictures on this section provided by TMG Karlsruhe and Balluff)
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V850 All Flash… more of everything
Since the introduction of our All Flash microcontroller range in 2004, over
300 new Flash-based 8-, 16- and 32-bit general purpose and application-specific
devices have now been introduced. This impressive line-up is further enhanced by
the addition of eleven new 32-bit V850 All Flash products, offering the rich
functionality of the world’s favourite high performance CPU combined with the
flexibility of marketleading Flash technology and an abundance of peripherals.
These devices are designed to extend the performance, memory and peripheral mix
of the existing V850 All Flash H Series range, ideal for 5 V applications
requiring a high number of A/D channels, and the J Series range, combining high
performance with low power.
Both the new V850ES/Hx3 line-up and the addition of V850ES/JG3 to the V850ES/
Jx3 line-up take performance to a new level, with a 1.6 times speed increase
compared to their second generation predecessors, running at 32 MHz. As well as
a performance increase, V850ES/Hx3 also benefits from the addition of new
peripherals. Two new internal oscillators have been added, offering 240 kHz and
8 MHz operation. Two more 16-bit timers have also been added to bring the total
timer count into double figures on larger devices, with one capable of
controlling a 3-phase motor now included as a standard peripheral. Other
enhancements include an I2C interface as well as a Spread Spectrum Clock
Generator (SSCG) to measure and manage radiant noise, decreasing EMI emissions
without external components.
No sacrifice has been made on any other peripherals either – the V850ES/Hx3
family still benefits from up to 24 channels of 10-bit A/D conversion, multiple
serial interfaces, watch timer, watchdog timer, low voltage interrupt and
In terms of memory, RAM sizes have also been increased from previous
generations, now ranging from 8 kB up to 32 kB on-chip, with Flash sizes from
128 kB up to 512 kB with package sizes including 64, 80, 100- and 144 pins.
How about V850ES/JG3? Our J Series devices have always been known for high
performance from a low supply voltage, and as already mentioned they now offer
32 MHz… from 3 V! For memory hungry applications, V850ES/JG3 also offers up to
1024 kB Flash on board, with a huge 60 kB RAM also embedded in a 100-pin
package. Like its sister device V850ES/JJ3, which comes in a 144-pin package, in
addition to the high performance core and huge memory options, V850ES/JG3 offers
a wide variety of general purpose functions on-chip, with a combination of
multiple high performance 16-bit timers, 12 channels of 10-bit A/D conversion,
D/A conversion, DMA controller, Real Time Output, an external bus, multiple
serial interfaces, watch timer, watchdog timer, low voltage interrupt and
on-chip debug. Both V850ES/Hx3 and V850ES/Jx3 provide an ideal entry point for
exploiting 32- bit performance in next-generation designs such as:
Point of sale
Industrial controls and drives
Heating, ventilation and air-conditioning
Test, measurement and instrumentation
And to turn next-generation innovation into production as fast as possible,
they are supported by NEC Electronics low-cost fully featured CUBE tools. IECUBE
offers full emulation and trace functionality whilst the new MINICUBE2 makes
best use of on-chip debug as well as full Flash programming, all in a single
tool supporting 8-, 16- and 32-bit microcontrollers, enabling almost any
application to get up and running very quickly. Both tool chains are supported
by the IAR ‘C’ Compiler suite with an appetizer KickStart version available so
you can start developing immediately. For all V850 devices, additional software
support is also available via the Greenhills Workbench if you prefer.
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The high voltage 3-phase inverter: The newest
addition to the motor control starter kit
NEC Electronics understands that there’s more to a solution than products
alone; therefore we offer an extensive range of easy to use, feature rich
development solutions to ‘enable you to get to market in no time’.
While these are available as separate items they can also be supplied as a
full low voltage kit for either the 78F0714 or V850ES/IK1.
A complete kit includes
ASSP microcontroller (V850ES/IK1 or ìPD78F0714)
Low voltage 3-phase power board
Brushless DC (BLDC) motor
To further complement our easy to use ‘motor control starter kit’ range, NEC
Electronics now introduces the high voltage 3-phase inverter. This fully
approved product provides a 3-phase inverter module able to support a range of
high voltage 3-phase motors such as
Brushless DC (BLDC)
Permanent Magnet AC (PMAC)
Asynchronous induction motors (AIM)
While the design and manufacture was made in Europe the unit
is able to be used worldwide. AC mains input voltages from 100 V to 240 V can be
used, while providing the maximum DC voltage (up to 350 V) to the motor and is
capable of driving 3-phase motors up to 800 W. These units are used as part of
the motor control software developments across NEC Electronics worldwide.
As part of the design specifications, the unit has been designed, tested and
certified to comply with all the European safety and RoHS regulations.
The European Low Voltage Directive (LVD)
Europe and China RoHS compliance regulations
Safety with ultimate control
One of the key features is user safety. The unit is housed in a specially
designed case, so that all connections provide electrical and mechanical
isolation for the user. The unit requires no additional circuitry, and has a
common interface with existing motor control starter kit products. (i.e. the
microcontroller ASSP and interface boards). The unit includes the fundamental
motor control functions such as power supplies, 3-phase IGBT power module,
isolated signal conditioning, and monitoring circuitry. Features of the inverter
Motor current and voltage measurement
Drive for the IGBT module
Automatic over current shutdown
GBT temperature measurement
Full isolation between high voltage circuits and the
low voltage control boards
Selectable AC mains supply voltages for 100 V/115
Internal power supplies for
High voltage DC supply (up to 350 V) for the IGBT
module and motor
Regulated +5 V and +15 V DC supplies for IGBT module
and signal conditioning circuits.
Additional breadboard area for additional user
A full user guide will be provided that is available for download from the motor
A number of demonstration software packages are in preparation for the
release of the unit, to support both types of 3-phase motor.
Induction motor control using V/F and space vector
Brushless DC motor control for both sensored and
The software will be available from our motor control starter kit website.
Further demonstration software packages will be released as new motor control
ASSP devices and microcontroller reference boards are developed (i.e. 78K0R/
ASSP and V850E/Ix3) and as further software reference examples are completed.
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Think 3-phase inverter control ... think NEC!
Introducing new V850E/Ix3 MCU family for complete solution
3-phase inverter control is widely used in the motors of large household
appliances such as air conditioners, washing machines and refrigerators.
Manufacturers of these products are under intense pressure to cut costs and
reduce energy consumption while still delivering more sophisticated appliances,
creating a need for components that can enable more precise motor control at
lower development costs.
NEC Electronics offers a range of dedicated 8-, 16- and 32-bit motor control
microcontrollers to do just that, with the latest devices offering unique
features on-chip such as embedded analog circuits, noise filters and safety
functions that will reduce overall system cost as well as the development burden
on appliance manufacturers, and benefit consumers by enabling more
sophisticated, eco-friendly products.
V850E/Ix3™ – new 32-bit family for high-end motor control.
One of NEC Electronics’ most recent developments is the V850E/Ix3™ line of
six microcontrollers, which operate at 64 MHz, execute 86 Dhrystone MIPS and
have two identical dedicated 3-phase inverter control functions able to drive
two independent sinusoidal vector drives simultaneously. The new V850E/Ix3
microcontrollers provide a complete solution for a range of advanced 3-phase
inverter control applications including, air conditioners, ventilation systems,
regenerators, washers/ dryers, pump control and high-end ovens etc.
Multi-function timer control
At the heart of the system, the 16-bit inverter timer is an
up/down counter with four double-buffered compare registers, one for the PWM
carrier cycle and the rest for three waveforms with independent duty cycles. A
variable dead-time interval can be inserted to prevent accidental shoot-through
of the power transistors and the interrupts generated at the half-way point in
the PWM cycle, and the timer overflows can be ‘culled’ (counted before they are
Vector control made easy
In vector control, precise current measurements must be
performed within every PWM cycle. The V850E/IG3 micro- controller’s two
highspeed 12-bit A/D circuits with independent sample and hold have multiple
sources for triggering including the inverter timer. Two double-buffered compare
registers can be employed to produce A/D triggering at any two points within the
PWM cycle. The A/D circuit is equipped with five double-buffered conversion
result registers. In scan mode, five measurements can be performed within one
PWM cycle and all measurements stored in separate buffers. One of the more
unique features of this microcontroller is the analog front end of embedded op
amps and analog comparators. For motor safety, two sets of analog comparators
are used to monitor A/D input voltage against two variable thresholds that can
be set on the microcontroller pins and also to produce a total hardware shutdown
if nonsafe operating conditions are detected. All this in addition to standard
safety functions such as Low Voltage Interrupt (LVI), Power on Clear (POC) and
|Use it for motor control or for general purpose – choice is
In addition to motor control-specific peripherals, the
V850E/Ix3 microcontroller has a large set of generalpurpose hardware to support
system tasks. A total of 13 available 16-bit timers, including the motor control
timer, can be configured in up to nine different modes of operation to control
the PWM output, interval timer, input capture, one-shot pulse generation,
pulse-width measurement, external event count, external triggerpulse output,
six-phase inverter PWM output and encoder counter. An additional
10-bit/8-channel A/D converter is provided for other analog device interfacing
such as potentiometers and temperature sensors.
A 16-bit address bus and 16-bit data bus are available for
external memory access on the V850E/IG3, and an on-chip direct-memory access
controller (DMAC) can be used for high-speed data transfer between various
memory devices, I/O registers or serial ports without CPU intervention. Other
peripherals include four high-speed serial interfaces with multiple functions
such as UART, UART with FIFO, clocked serial interface (CSI) and IIC.
Ultimate integration enabling lower system cost The variety
and number of specialized and general-purpose peripherals make the V850E/IX3
microcontroller an ideal single-chip solution for motor and system control
implementation. The 32-bit RISC architecture-based 86 MIPS performance and 64
MHz operating speed exceeds the requirements of a vector-controlled sinusoidal
One of the most unique features of V850E/Ix3 is its ability
to control two 3-phase motors simultaneously (see application example on the
left for detail). The on-chip op amps, comparators, pull-up resistors, internal
voltage regulator and POC and LVI circuits allow a drastic reduction in external
component count, resulting in a more compact and less expensive motor control
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Lithium-Ion Batteries as Replacement for Lead Acid
Lead acid batteries, which up to now have been used by all automobile
manufacturers, rank as the number 1 cause in the breakdown statistics.
Therefore, the replacement of lead acid batteries with lithium-ion
iron-phosphate (LiFePO4) cells is an ongoing endeavor. LiFePO4 cells not only
have a significantly higher energy density (Figure 1), but they also feature a
longer lifetime and a distinctly more favorable temperature behavior compared to
lead acid batteries. Whereby with lead acid batteries only 40 percent of the
original energy is available at 0°C with LiFePO4 cells even at temperatures down
to –20°C the decrease in the original energy available is much less. In
addition, the reduced weight of LiFePO4 cells in comparison to their energy is
an advantage, which in the meantime is not just valued by racing car and
The only reason why LiFePO4 cells, despite all of their advantages, have not
as yet made a breakthrough in mass markets in the price advantage of lead acid
batteries, which up till now was unbeatable. However, a reversal of this trend
is clear. Due to the worldwide shortage of raw materials, the price for lead
acid batteries has been steadily increasing by approximately four percent per
month and there is no end in sight to this surge of price increases. On the
other hand, the price for LiFePO4 cells is developing in the opposite direction.
No wonder, lithium is produced from salt and has almost unlimited availability.
At Batterien-Montage- Zentrum (BMZ) in Karlstein near Aschaffenburg, Germany,
it is therefore assumed that at least 50 percent of the automobile manufacturers
will change to LiFePO4 cells within the next years. Sven Bauer, Managing
Director of BMZ is convinced, “It will not be customer satisfaction, reduced
weight, longer lifetime, volumes or temperature stability that will force the
market penetration of LiFePO4 technology, but the decision will be influenced by
price.” Sven adds, “In our opinion, with current peaks of more than 100A per
single cell and many thousands of charge and discharge cycles, LiFePO4 batteries
are not only suitable for use in automobiles but also ideally suited for use in
military applications, electric vehicles, robotics or emergency power supplies.
At the present time, we are observing an increased interest from this circle of
customers for this relatively new technology.”
By the way, LiFePO4 cells are not the only lithiumion technology offered by
Gleichmann Electronics as an alternative to lead acid batteries. The generic
term lithium-ion is used for many different technologies, which are in some ways
significantly different in their characteristics and key features. So far, only
few battery users know the wide range of possibilities, which lithium-ion based
cells offer for many various applications.
A prime example of this is the 18650 form-factor (approximately 18mm in
diameter and 65mm in length), which has effectively established itself in the
past few years as the standard in the field of lithium-ion cells. It offers
ideal conditions for the implementation of intelligent, customized battery
packs. Gleichmann Electronics, in close cooperation with BMZ, has already
designed a large number of individual battery packs with LiFePO4 cells in an
18650 form-factor, but also with lithiumion manganese (LiMn) and lithium-ion
cobalt (LiCo) cells.
LiFePO4-based batteries have more than 300 percent higher energy density
than VRLA batteries
Each customer has his own individual requirements, which are reflected in the
The many different technical aspects and advantages, which are offered by the
various lithium-ion technologies, are demonstrated in the example (Figure 2) of
a 12V / 7Ah lead acid battery measuring 151mm x 65mm x 95mm.
Industry standard 18650 form-factor
A LiCo cell with 2.55Ah currently guarantees the highest
capacity in our program. Indeed LiCo technology always requires a safety circuit
for shortcircuit, overcharge and deep-discharge, but this disadvantage is put
into perspective by the very high capacity compared to other lithium-ion
technologies. Twenty-four of these cells in the form factor of the lead acid
battery in question results in a performance capacity of up to 15Ah.
In reality this naturally means, among other things, a massive space and weight
saving. The possible range of applications for this battery includes:
wheelchairs,lawnmowers, stair lifts, bed controls, garden tools, electric bikes
or scooters as well as medical equipment.
A LiMn cell in 18650 form-factor can not achieve the capacity of a LiCo cell,
however, this technology is finding rapidly increasing use, because all of the
safety requirements can also be met without safety circuits. Even ten times its
intrinsic capacity of maximum 1.6Ah as current peak is not a problem. The range
of applications naturally overlap with LiCo technology, whereby LiMn cells
moreover, can also be utilized in electric motor control. As you can see,
nowadays, finding a suitable replacement for lead acid batteries is not so
difficult. That is, of course, assuming that you have the necessary know-how and
plenty of experience like our partner BMZ and the team from Gleichmann
Current Peaks [A]
500 cycles @ 75%
300 cycles @ 80%
1500 cycles @ 86%
* valid for use under normal conditions (23°C and in each case the
specified standard capacity)
Different lithium-ion technologies enable a wide range of alternatives to the
classical lead acid battery
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One of industry’s lowest on-state resistance
NEC Electronics Europe introduced the TO-263-7 PowerMOSFET series as the
newest addition to the company’s NP Series of lowvoltage power-management
devices. As part of the NP Series, the new MOSFET devices feature an innovative
fabrication process and advanced packaging solutions designed to reduce leakage
current, manage heat dissipation more efficiently and enable one of the
industry’s lowest on-state resistances Rds(on), of 1.5 mÙ (maximum). These new
PowerMOSFET are ideal for applications such as automotive, low-voltage DC motor
control and uninterruptible power supplies, where high current capability, as
well as stringent power management and reliability are required.
With the increasing demand for power-management devices some new key challenges
emerge, including a demand for smaller cell sizes that reduce overall chip costs
and a lower Rds(on) for optimized heat dissipation.
Thanks to a combination of advanced architecture and packaging, NEC
Electronics’ new NP-Series PowerMOSFET are high-quality, proven power-management
The TO-263-7 Power- MOSFET series is manufactured in the UMOS-4 process,
which is a trench technology and achieves an ultra-fine design rule of 0.25 ìm.
This results in higher cell density, up to 160 M cells/inch2, enabling chip
designers to lower on-resistance over a given area of silicon. The new
PowerMOSFET also features an advanced packaging developed by NEC Electronics
using an unique multi-bonding technology that doubles the number of bonding
wires from two to four wires.
The additional wires allow the NEC Electronics MOSFET to manage high currents
with very low on-resistance in relatively small packages by limiting the
on-resistance yet still improving current-carrying capabilities. With an
ultra-low on-state resistance of Rds(on) = 1.5 mÙ, max. (Vdss = 40 V; Vgs = 10
V), the new TO-263-7 PowerMOSFET also helps to reduce the amount of the PCB
dedicated to handling heat dissipation.
The NP Series is part of NEC Electronics’ family of low-voltage switching
devices that provides efficient power management for power supplies, automotive
systems, motor control, office, robotic and uninterruptible power applications.
Additional information about NEC Electronics PowerMOSFET products can be
found at our homepage.
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LED Applications from CML Innovative
Gleichmann Electronics is now also official distributor for the complete LED
product portfolio from CML Innovative Technologies, one of the largest worldwide
suppliers of miniature lighting solutions for a wide range of markets and
applications. CML is not only a designer and manufacturer of a wide range of
socketed LED lamps for signal technology, but for many years also gives
significant importance to LED modules and LED displays. Supplementary products,
such as automotive applications, light pipes, LED drivers, traffic lights,
inspection tools, architecture lighting, small incandescent light sources and
acsentio accent lighting, round off the company’s product portfolio. CML’s
products will be sold by Gleichmann Electronics in the whole of Europe.
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Personal Profile of David Gregg – Gleichmann Sunrise
David Gregg is 36 years old, married, and has two children an 11 year old
daughter and a 6 year old son. He started university in Grenoble (France) for a
2-year Electronics Degree, followed by 2 years in Coventry (England) for a
Master of Science in Electronics and Computer Aided Engineering. He spent his
final year (fifth year) at Université Paris Jussieu (France) for a business
orientated degree (DESS).
After a period in a research lab at Coventry University, David started as an
electronics engineer with ABB Kent Meters in England and rapidly became an ASIC
design engineer. He joined Sunrise Electronics (now Gleichmann Sunrise) 9 years
ago in 1998 and worked in close collaboration with NEC to promote their ASIC
lines, from simple gate arrays to leading edge cell-based technology.
David provided a technical interface between the end customer and NEC’s ASIC
group. This led to a product manager role at Sunrise Electronics and recently to
increased field sales responsibilities. Having grown up in the French Alps,
David is always looking forward to winter so he can blow the dust off his
snowboard. But, while waiting for the snow you can often find him either on a
mountain bike or flying some rather large kites (generally known as power kites
for kite buggying or kite surfing) on some wide sandy beach in the south of
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|Optocouplers for IPM drive
NEC Electronics introduces a new IC output optocoupler that
is designed for driving Intelligent Power Modules (IPM) in general purpose
inverter and motor control applications. The PS9513 is coming in a new white DIP
package that features 5000 V isolation, 8 mm creepage distance and a CMR as high
as 15 kV/ìs (min). This high speed optocoupler has an open collector output and
allows a maximum output voltage of 35 V. The PS9513 is fully RoHS compliant
using nickel-palladium-gold as leadfree pin-plating material. Common
international safety certificates are available, e.g. UL and VDE (DIN